17 Nov Mesne Profits Definition
Earnings mesne (pronounced “middle”) are sums of money paid for the occupation of land to a person entitled to immediate occupation if no authorization has been granted for that occupation.   The concept is of feudal origin and common in countries based on the English legal system (including many former British colonies).  The word is derived from the root word demesne. Can the landlord apply for double rent or double value if a tenant does not declare free ownership because a subtenant remains in business under an AST? If so, would the claim be directed against the tenant or subtenant? For the purposes of these frequently asked questions, we assumed that there was no direct agreement between the landlord and subtenant. Possible recourse by the landlord against the direct tenant If the direct tenant (T) lease provided for a vacant possession at the end of his tenancy, this included an obligation to ensure that the property was vacant by persons. For more information, see Practice Notes: Vacant Possession and Assignment and Vacant Possession. T will therefore breach this obligation, and landlord (L) will have a claim for damages against T for losses incurred in this regard, including the cost of obtaining possession from subtenant (S), and for the resulting delay and other losses that L may suffer in the meantime while they are unable to do so. take care of the property. For double rent or double value claims, see Practice Note: Use and Occupancy Claims, Mesne Profits, Double Rent and Double Value covering both types of claims, as set out below. Double value An owner can claim twice the annual value of the premises from a tenant if he has requested possession Dive into our 1 precedents related to the profits of Mesne Natural law gives the main right to compensation against the violation of the law. Similarly, unlawful interference with the immovable property of others is a legal wrong, and natural law gives the principal right to compensation or compensation for such legal injury. The term “Mesne profit” refers to the damage or compensation that can be claimed from a person who has been illegally in possession of real estate.
Mesne`s profits are nothing more than compensation that a person in illegal possession of property belonging to third parties must pay to the owner of the property for such unlawful use.  According to settled case law, unlawful possession is the very essence of a right to profit and therefore the basis of the liability of the unlawful possessor. As a general rule, the obligation to pay profits therefore goes hand in hand with the actual possession of the land. That is, in general, the one who is illegally in possession and enjoyment of the unauthorized property is responsible for the profits of Mesne. Before understanding the concept and relevant determination of profits in the 1908 Code of Civil Procedure, it would be appropriate to briefly examine and understand the concept of ownership and possession. 1.1 Ownership and possessionThe concept of ownership is one of the fundamental legal concepts common to all legal systems. Property consists of a myriad of claims, freedoms, powers, and immunities with respect to things that are property. According to some lawyers, there is no point in having the notion of ownership without these claims. The idea of ownership developed slowly with the growth of civilization. As long as people wondered from place to place and did not have permanent residence, they had no sense of belonging. The idea began to germinate when they started planting trees, cultivating land and building their homes. The transition from a pastoral economy to an agricultural economy led to the development of the idea of property.
People started thinking in terms of “mine.” The concept of ownership is easy to understand, but difficult to define precisely. Lawyers have defined ownership in different ways. · According to Austin, “property means a right that applies against any person subject to the law that gives the user of infinite nature the right to put things.” · According to Hibbert, “Property comprises four rights, and they are the rights to use the thing, to prevent others from using, disposing of and destroying it. · The Blacks Law Dictionary defined property as “a set of rights of use and enjoyment of property, including the right to transfer it to others.” An analysis of the above definitions leads to the conclusion that property is nothing more than a right that belongs to every person subject to the law. Such a claim includes the following rights.1. Right of possession and use,2. Right to exclude others from possession and use,3. Right of transfer and;4. Right to destroy things that are property. Therefore, ownership includes a number of rights, and among these rights, one of the most important rights is the possession of property. Possession is prima facie evidence of ownership and the law always protects the right to possession.
According to Savigny, the protection of property is a branch of the protection of the person, and since any act of violence against a person is illegal, it is also the act that disturbs possession by fraud or violence. He further explained that property is not protected because it is so closely linked to property, but in the interest of public order and security. If the law allows self-help, it would certainly lead to a breach of the peace. Therefore, in the interests of public order and security, no one should be allowed to take matters into their own hands. According to Windschids, the protection of property is based on the same ground as protection against injury, i.e.: Violation of private law.  Property is well protected under criminal law, with the aim of preserving and maintaining peace. Possession is also protected under tort law. In property law, possession is considered sufficient proof of ownership. Each person can keep what they own, unless someone can prove that they have a better title. And as soon as someone can prove the best title against the person who was in previous possession, he is entitled to compensation against the illegal owner of the property.
Mesne winnings are a type of compensation that can be claimed against a person in illegal possession. Mesne profits have the character of damages, because they are deprived of the benefit that the person in possession derives from the property.1.2 Origin of the concept of mesne profitsThe concept of mesne profits has its origin in the Middle Ages. Under the feudal system, the king owned all the land. The king leased part of this land to his barons on condition that they put soldiers at his disposal whenever he wanted to raise an army. Soon it became a good way to raise money by charging rent for the land. In return, the barons leased some of the land to tenants and paid rent – usually in kind, by providing livestock or grain – for the privilege of being able to keep some of the produce for themselves. This is how the concept of rental chains was born. The person to whom they paid the rent became known as “Mesne`s landlord.” The word meant “intermediary” in Old French.
The term was originally “mesne rentes et profits” and referred to any rents or profits from the land that could be extracted by the intermediate owner. In modern times, the term “mesne profits” refers to the claim that a rightful owner of property has against the illegal owner of the property.1.3 NATURE OF Mesne`s profitsThe entire legal system that governs the civilized nations of the world agrees on the fundamental principle of natural justice to obtain redress for wrongs or violations of legal claims.  In other words, natural law mainly gives the right to compensation for damages. Mesne Profit is such a right to compensation for damage, i.e. violation of legal rights. Profit mesne is a positive right against the violation of private law. The main purpose of awarding Mesne`s profit is to compensate the beneficial owner of the property for the losses suffered. In other words, the purpose of granting an income decree is to compensate a person who has been held out of possession and deprived of the enjoyment of his property, when he or she was entitled to own property, and the word compensation would include, within its scope, any actual loss suffered by a lawful owner.
The idea of granting profits to Mesne as compensation usually means reparation for an illegal act from the past, i.e. illegal possession. Legal provisions relating to the profits of MesneThe profits of Mesne can be defined as profits or other financial benefits received by the person who has the true owner between the expropriation and the restitution of the property.  Therefore, the price corresponds to the gains that illegal possession receives or could obtain with due diligence for the illegal use of the property. Mesne`s profits are defined in Article 2(12) of the Code of Civil Procedure. Article 2(12) of the Code of Civil Procedure provides: `Profits from property` means profits which the person who has an unlawful interest in such property has actually received or could have received with ordinary care, as well as interest on those profits, but not profits resulting from improvements made by the wrongfully detained person. From the analysis of the above definition, it can be concluded that “Mesne profits” are those profits that the person actually made in illegal possession or could have made with ordinary care.