23 Nov Military Mobilization Definition
The mobilization “could solve a personnel problem for Russia,” Pentagon press secretary Brigadier General Pat Ryder said at a press conference on September 22. “What is not clear is whether or not this could meaningfully address leadership and control, logistics, maintenance and, most importantly, the moral issues that we have seen Russian forces live in Ukraine.” Volodymyr Zelenskyi, the President of Ukraine, signed a decree on February 24, 2022 on the general mobilization of the population after Russia`s invasion of Ukraine. Conscripts and reservists were called up over the next 90 days to “ensure the defence of the state and maintain readiness for combat and mobilization.” Men between the ages of 18 and 60 were prohibited from leaving the country . The production of supplies gradually increased during the war. In Russia, the expansion of industry allowed a 2,000% increase in the production of artillery shells – by November 1915, more than 1,512,000 artillery shells were produced per month. In France, a massive mobilization of the female population to work in the factories allowed Shell`s production to reach 100,000 shells per day in 1915.  Jonas says that mobilization also signals that reservists do not want to participate in this operation. 4. Travel to mobilization stations: The reserve unit leaves its home station and travels to the mobilization site – in the United States or abroad. 5. Improved operational readiness: The reserve unit makes final preparations prior to actual deployment to the mobilization site. Early identification and planning of medical support to EU-led military operations is essential to save lives, treat wounds and keep personnel healthy. Common standards would ensure high-quality and consistent medical support, regardless of the country that provides it.
Prussia noted not only the problems of transporting supplies for the armies, but also the lack of communication between troops, officers and generals. The Austrian army consisted mainly of Slavs, but also contained many other ethnic groups.  Austrian peacetime military training used nine different languages and accustomed Austrian soldiers to receiving orders only in their mother tongue.  Conversely, in order to increase the effectiveness of the new “sniper rifle” developed by the monarchy, officers were forced to speak only German when giving orders to their men.  Even an Austrian officer commented to Solferino that his troops could not even understand the “stop” order.  This shows the communication problems that quickly emerged with the advent of the mass army. It reorganized the functioning of the national economy in order to use resources as efficiently as possible to support the overall war effort. In general, the available resources and productive capacities of each country determine the degree and intensity of economic mobilization. Therefore, the effective mobilization of economic resources in support of the war effort is a complex process that requires greater coordination and productive capacity at the national level.  It is important to note that some scholars have argued that such large-scale mobilization of society and its resources for war purposes has the effect of aiding state-building.
 Herbst argues that requests for responses to an external aggressor are strong enough to force structural change and forge a common national identity.  The improvement of military mobility in Europe has recently gained momentum. However, given the complexity of the issue, it remains to be seen what concrete progress will be made between now and the NATO Summit in July. The same applies to how new EU initiatives will complement NATO`s needs. Russian President Vladimir Putin has ordered a partial military mobilization in the country to support the war effort in Ukraine. But what is a partial military mobilization? The Second Italian War of Independence illustrated all the problems of the mobilization of the modern army. Prussia began to see the future of mass mobilization when Napoleon III transported 130,000 soldiers to Italy on military railways in 1859.  French caravans carrying supplies for the French and Piedmontese armies were incredibly slow, and the weapons in these caravans were poorly organized.
 However, these armies were lucky, as their Austrian opponents had similar problems with slow supply caravans (one of which apparently traveled less than three miles a day).  Now, Putin has emphasized partial mobilization, meaning that only citizens who are currently in the reserve or who have served in the armed forces or who have military capabilities and relevant experience will be mobilized. Russian citizens aged 18 and 50 are subject to partial military mobilization. The acquisition of military manpower during mobilization must be correlated with the acquisition of weapons and equipment needed for training and combat, and synchronized with training and strategic deployment schedules. To be effective, mobilization must not only be well organized, but also keep everything in order. Complicated mobilization plans contributed significantly to the outbreak of World War I, for in 1914, under the laws and customs of war observed at the time (not to mention the desire not to endanger national security), the general mobilization of a nation`s armed forces was invariably considered an act of war by that country`s likely enemies. Under von Moltke the Younger, Germany mobilized the revised Schlieffen Plan, which envisaged a two-front war with Russia and France. Like Russia, Germany decided to follow its plans on two fronts despite the war on one front. Germany declared war on France August 3, 1914, the day after an ultimatum to Belgium demanding the right of German troops to pass as part of the pincer operation planned by the army.
Finally, Britain declared war on Germany because it had violated Belgian neutrality. The technological advances of the 20th century, particularly since the advent of nuclear weapons, have greatly increased the complexity of planning and mobilization. The relationship between a nation`s standing forces defending during the mobilization period and that nation`s full war potential has always varied and has depended on factors such as foreign policy, global tensions, the strength and location of allies, and estimates of the time required to complete mobilization. Because of the enormous power of nuclear weapons and the speed with which they can be delivered to their targets, it is conceivable that a nation`s war potential could be destroyed before mobilization can begin. This situation requires well-prepared permanent forces, that is, the peace army, navy and air force – which could be the only available means to continue the defense and launch a counterattack. In Ukraine, the fierce defense paralyzed the invaders. Even if Kiev falls, continued resistance seems likely. Ukraine reminded the world that national unity in the face of existential threats, autonomy strengthened by collective defense and courage combined with compassion can help oppressed populations resist the most powerful armed forces. Mobilization was like a holiday for many inexperienced soldiers; For example, some Germans wore flowers in the muzzles of their rifles as they walked. The trains brought soldiers to the front lines of the battle. The Germans bulldozed the movements of 11,000 trains as they brought troops across the Rhine.
The Frenchman mobilized about 7,000 trains for the movement. Horses were also mobilized for the war. The British had prepared 165,000 horses for the cavalry, the Austrians 600,000, the Germans 715,000 and the Russians more than a million.  The British Dominions, including Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, were forced into the war when Britain did. However, it was largely left to individual dominions to recruit and equip forces for the war effort. The Canadian, Australian and New Zealand mobilizations all involved the creation of new field troops for overseas service, rather than using existing regimental structures as a framework. In the case of Canada, the Minister of Militia, Sir Sam Hughes, created the Canadian Expeditionary Force by sending telegrams to 226 commanders of separate reserve units asking volunteers to gather at Valcartier, Quebec. The field force served separately from the militia (the Canadian Peacekeeping Army); In 1920, the Otter Commission was forced to specify which units would perpetuate units serving in the trenches – the CEF or the pre-war militia.
A unique solution of perpetuation was introduced, and mobilization during World War II did not replicate the model of Sir Sam Hughes, described by historians as more like ancient Scottish clans gathering to fight than a modern, industrialized nation preparing for war. M. Ryder also said that conscripting reservists “will not change the operational facts on the ground, which is that Ukrainians will continue to fight for their country. The Russian military faces major challenges on the ground and the international community will support Ukraine as it struggles to protect its country from invasion. Selective mobilization responds to natural disasters or civil unrest that do not threaten national security. Examples of domestic political urgency that might require selective mobilization would be a postal strike, earthquake or other natural disaster. The next day, the Tsar`s foreign minister, Sergei Sazonov, again convinced Nicholas of the need for a general mobilization, and the order was given on that day, July 30.